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Bronislav Odintsov
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Livro Zoologia Dos Invertebrados Brusca E Brusca Pdf 1180: How to Access and Read this Book Online


Livro Zoologia Dos Invertebrados Brusca E Brusca Pdf 1180




If you are interested in learning more about the fascinating world of invertebrates, you might want to check out this book. Livro Zoologia Dos Invertebrados Brusca E Brusca Pdf 1180 is a comprehensive and updated textbook on invertebrate zoology written by two renowned experts in the field. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book is about, why it is important, and how you can download it in PDF format.




Livro Zoologia Dos Invertebrados Brusca E Brusca Pdf 1180



What is zoology and why is it important?




Zoology is the branch of biology that studies animals and their interactions with each other and their environment. It covers topics such as animal anatomy, physiology, behavior, ecology, evolution, genetics, and conservation. Zoology is important because it helps us understand the diversity and complexity of life on Earth, as well as the role that animals play in maintaining the balance and health of ecosystems. Zoology also has many applications in fields such as medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, wildlife management, education, and tourism.


What are invertebrates and how are they classified?




Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone or a vertebral column. They make up about 95% of all animal species and can be found in almost every habitat on Earth. Invertebrates range from microscopic organisms such as protozoa and rotifers to giant creatures such as squids and jellyfish. Invertebrates are classified into different groups based on their body plan, symmetry, tissue organization, coelom formation, segmentation, appendages, nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system, excretory system, reproductive system, and developmental patterns. These groups are called phyla (singular phylum) and each phylum can be further divided into classes (singular class).


The major groups of invertebrates




There are more than 30 phyla of invertebrates recognized by scientists today. However, some of them are more diverse and abundant than others. Here are some of the major groups of invertebrates and their characteristics:


Porifera




Porifera or sponges are simple aquatic animals that have a porous body with no true tissues or organs. They filter water through their body to obtain food and oxygen. They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. There are about 9,000 species of sponges living in marine and freshwater habitats.


Cnidaria




Cnidaria or cnidarians are aquatic animals that have a radial symmetry and a body composed of two layers of cells: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis. They have a central cavity called a gastrovascular cavity where digestion takes place. They also have specialized cells called cnidocytes that contain stinging organelles called nematocysts. Cnidarians can exist as either polyps (attached forms) or medusae (free-swimming forms). They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. There are about 10,000 species of cnidarians living in marine and freshwater habitats. They include jellyfish, corals, anemones, hydroids, etc.


Platyhelminthes




Nematoda




Nematoda or roundworms are cylindrical animals that have a bilateral symmetry and a body composed of three layers of cells: an outer cuticle, a middle hypodermis, and an inner pseudocoelom. They have a complete digestive system with a mouth and an anus. They also have a simple nervous system with a nerve ring and longitudinal nerve cords. They have excretory organs called renette cells that regulate osmotic balance. Most roundworms are free-living while some are parasitic. They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. There are about 25,000 species of roundworms living in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats.


Annelida




Annelida or segmented worms are soft-bodied animals that have a bilateral symmetry and a body composed of three layers of cells: an outer epidermis, a middle coelom, and an inner gut. They have a segmented body with each segment containing a pair of appendages called parapodia. They have a well-developed nervous system with a brain and ventral nerve cord. They have a closed circulatory system with blood vessels and a heart. They also have excretory organs called nephridia that remove metabolic wastes. Some segmented worms are free-living while others are parasitic. They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. There are about 17,000 species of segmented worms living in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. They include earthworms, leeches, polychaetes, etc.


Mollusca




Mollusca or mollusks are soft-bodied animals that have a bilateral symmetry and a body composed of three main parts: a head, a visceral mass, and a foot. They also have an external or internal shell made of calcium carbonate. They have a complete digestive system with a mouth and an anus. They also have a well-developed nervous system with a brain and ganglia. They have an open circulatory system with blood vessels and a heart. They also have excretory organs called nephridia that remove metabolic wastes. Most mollusks are free-living while some are parasitic. They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. There are about 85,000 species of mollusks living in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. They include snails, clams, squids, octopuses, etc.


Arthropoda




Arthropoda or arthropods are hard-bodied animals that have a bilateral symmetry and a body composed of two main parts: a cephalothorax and an abdomen. They also have an external skeleton made of chitin. They have jointed appendages that are specialized for different functions such as locomotion, feeding, sensing, etc. They have a complete digestive system with a mouth and an anus. They also have a well-developed nervous system with a brain and ventral nerve cord. They have an open circulatory system with blood vessels and a heart. They also have excretory organs called Malpighian tubules that remove metabolic wastes. Most arthropods are free-living while some are parasitic. They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. There are about 1 million species of arthropods living in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. They include insects, spiders, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, etc.


Echinodermata




Chordata